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:Uploaded on FRIDAY 28th OCT 2016

FABRICATION OF DUAL BAND MICRO-STRIP PATCH ANTENNA.

In this article, We are going to discuss the procedure for fabricating a rectangular Microstrip patch antenna by Chemical etching and Mechanical method and then we will explain How the Dualband rectangular Micro-strip patch antenna can be fabricated with these methods.

FABRICATION OF A MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

The following the steps followed to fabricate a patch antenna Using Chemical Method:

  1. First before fabrication the microstrip antenna has to be designed in Ansoft HFSS software or CST Tool or any other tool ( We have used HFSS here) with the proper design parameters required for the application of ours, parameters may be as follows: . After proper designing it is simulated to see for the correct expected result.

  2. HelpShareideas- DESIGNED MICROSTRIP DUAL BAND PATCH ANTENNA image

    Fig 1. DESIGNED MICROSTRIP DUAL BAND PATCH ANTENNA

  3. After obtaining the results for that results the antenna has to be fabricated, the antenna front view is drawn in the corel draw software with the same measurement as required. And a print out is taken in a photoresistive sheet. Considering a practical error could occur, so two slightly different design than ours is considered and taken a print out.

  4. HelpShareideas- View of the Printout image

    Fig 2. View of the Print

  5. Printed Circuit Board with FR4 substrate coated with copper is taken they are cut as much as required matching it with the measurement of the antenna required. After cutting they are grinded at the corners to get a smooth corner and sides as shown below.

  6. HelpShareideas- View of the PCB FR4 image

    Fig 3. View of the Copper Coated PCB Board with FR4 Substrate

  7. As copper is a reactive element with air, cu could reacted with air to form oxides of copper, so the metal coating is used so that the oxides are not formed during the fabrication process.

  8. HelpShareideas- View of the PCB FR4 image

    Fig 4. View of the PCB Rubbed with Metal Coating

  9. As in the antenna there is ground plane and the ground plane used is copper they shouldn‘t be removed so they are covered with plastic tape. And it is seen that there is no gap in ground plane as the PCB will be exposed to UV light.

  10. In a dark room the PCB is taken and they are kept in the solution of water and photos resistive solvent in 1:2 ratio.

  11. The PCB is taken into the other exposing room where the PCB is exposed to UV light; here the photo resistive sheet which had the print of the design of antenna is kept between the UV light and the PCB. As exposed to the UV for about 15 minutes lightsome part of PCB, which Requires Copper is not, exposed to UV rays directly but the copper part, which had to be removed, is exposed directly to UV light.

  12. HelpShareideas- View of the UV Ray Exposing image

    Fig 5. View of the UV Ray Exposing

  13. Developer is used to develop the required antenna design, i.e. after exposing to UV rays a developer solution is kept ready, so that the PCB is kept inside id for about 10 minutes.

  14. After that some traces of the antenna can be seen as designed, for that some amount of ferric chloride is added with water and shaken well for about one hour so that the unwanted part of copper in the PCB gets dissolved in that solution i.e. which is exposed to the UV rays. And the other part remains in the same as designed so the PCB is no more a PCB it is a micro strip antenna now.

  15. HelpShareideas- View of the UV Ray Exposing image

    Fig 6. View of the traces of Antenna.

  16. The outer part is correctly cut. And the corners are grinded to get the smooth corners on all four sides.

  17. The antenna is taken and it is connected with the connector so as to feed the power to the antenna, the connector is connected through soldering.

  18. The micro strip antenna is ready for the practical observation of the expected results.

  19. HelpShareideas- View of FABRICATED PATCH ANTENNA AS PER OUR DESIGN image

    Fig 7. FABRICATED PATCH ANTENNA AS PER OUR DESIGN.


ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

The simulated and practical results of the designed antenna are as below. S Parameters of both practical and simulated is shown below from the graph, we got two different resonate frequencies @ 2.4 to 2.45Ghz at -17dB and 4.2 Ghz to 4.25 Ghz at -20 dB approximately. Which are commercial 3G and ISM bands. The antenna we have designed for the above applications there is a minor shift in a resonate frequencies this is due to the variations of practical material dimensions, thickness. The fabricated antenna‘s dimensions are approximately equal to simulated antenna.

In photolithography process a small variations in slit dimensions leads to the variations in current distribution and resonate frequencies .This shift in resonate frequencies is not a major variation it is a negligible.

HelpShareideas- View of FABRICATED PATCH ANTENNA AS PER OUR DESIGN image

Fig 8. SIMULATED RESULTS for DUAL BAND MS PATCH ANTENNA DESIGN.

Note : Click the link to access the complete ANALYSIS OF RESULTS of the Dual Band Micro-strip Patch Antenna.

Editor: HelpShareIdeas.com

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